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Battery and EV Fire Safety


Facing the crisis of fossil fuel depletion, global warming, and climate change, Li-ion battery is perceived as the most promising solution for the alternative energy source. However, the frequent occurrence of battery fire poses a severe threat to public safety, becoming a significant obstacle for further developing and applying electric vehicles (EVs). Compared with conventional fire, the fire hazards exhibited by Li-ion batteries are immensely disparate in initiation route, spread rate, duration, toxicity, and suppression. 


Our research focuses on the thermal runaway characteristics of Li-ion batteries under various conditions and the fire protection technologies of the battery pack for electric vehicles. Through experiments and numerical simulations, we are designing new materials to mitigate battery fire and a sophisticated fire protection strategy for battery energy storage systems. The research outcomes will not only support the future development of safe high-energy batteries but also help lay a good scientific foundation for the emerging development of fire-safe EVs.


  • Lithium-ion Battery fire dynamics under extreme storage and transport environment and smart fire detection, Shenzhen Municipal Science and Technology Innovation Commission, HK$0.5M, 2022 – 2025.

  • Self-heating ignition and fire hazards of high-energy lithium-ion batteries, RGC Early Stage Scheme (ECS), HK$ 600K, 2019 - 2022;

  • Study on spread of thermal runaway and fire safety of Li-ion battery, Shanghai Science and Technology Innovative Project Fund, HK$ 500K, 2020 - 2022; 

Project Members

Yanhui Liu

Congliang Ye.png

Congliang Ye

Lei Zhang.jpg

Lei Zhang

Yuxin Zhou.jpg

Yuxin Zhou

Representative publications:

  1. Y. Liu, H. Niu, C. Xu, X. Huang (2022) Thermal runaway propagation in linear battery module under low atmospheric pressure, Applied Thermal Engineering, 119086.

  2. H. Niu, C. Chen, Y. Liu, L. Li, Z. Li, D. Ji, X. Huang (2022) Mitigating Thermal Runaway Propagation of NCM 811 Prismatic Batteries via Hollow Glass Microspheres Plates, Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 162, 672-683.

  3. J. Weng, D. Ouyang, Y. Liu, M. Chen, Y. Li, X. Huang, J. Wang (2021) Thermal runaway propagation of Li-ion batteries: Effect of oxygen level and dilution gas, Journal of Power Sources, 509, 230340.

  4. P. Sun, R. Bisschop, H. Niu, X. Huang (2020) A Review of Battery Fires in Electric Vehicles, Fire Technology, 56, 1361–1410. [Highly Cited Paper]

  5. Y. Liu, P. Sun, S. Lin, H. Niu, X. Huang (2020) Self-heating ignition of open-circuit cylindrical Li-ion battery pile: Towards fire-safe storage and transport, Journal of Energy Storage, 32, 101842. 

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